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# 2.13 Achievement Objectives

### Excellence

• Investigate a situation involving elements of chance using a simulation.

• Investigate a situation involving elements of chance using a simulation, with justification.

• Investigate a situation involving elements of chance using a simulation, with statistical insight.

This involves showing evidence of using each component of the simulation process.

This involves involves linking components of the simulation process to the context, explaining relevant considerations made in the design of the simulation, and supporting findings with statements which refer to evidence gained from the simulation.

This involves integrating statistical and contextual knowledge throughout the simulation process, which may involve reflecting about the process, or considering other variables.

Achievement Standard 2.11 #91268 (link to NZQA)

The process of carrying out a simulation involves:
* designing a simulation for a given situation by
- identifying tools to be used
- defining a trial and deciding the number of trials
- determining data recording methods
* carrying out the simulation and recording outcomes
* electing and using appropriate displays and measures
* communicating findings in a conclusion.

### Clarifications

##### Situation

It is intended that students will be provided with a situation to investigate. The situation must be one where results cannot easily be obtained using theoretical probability models.

##### Providing feedback

It is appropriate for assessors to give feedback during the simulation design stage of the process. Further details are given in the Conditions of Assessment document.

##### Simulation and data

Students need to design and carry out a simulation for the situation that they have been given. The data that they collect from carrying out the simulation will then enable them to make some conclusions about the situation.

##### Required quality of student response

Merit is with justification. This could involve discussing at least one assumption students have made in their simulation and demonstrating an understanding that the results of the situation provide an estimate, for example of a probability or a mean.

Excellence is with statistical insight. This involves a discussion of at least two assumptions and a reflection on the process used. There needs to be a link between the assumption made and its effect on the simulation process and possible impact on the probabilities used in the simulation. An understanding of the situation that is being investigated needs to be evident in the discussion.